The orchestra was established in 1992 as a "chamber orchestra" initiated and supported by the Ashdod Municipality, the Center for the Absorption of Immigrant Artists and the Ministry of Education and Sports.  In 2007, following its great success, the orchestra became the "Ashdod Symphony Orchestra".

The orchestra's activities are reflected in classical and operatic series, explanatory and accessible concerts for the public and other series related to jazz music, folk music, and at the same time a variety of performances that combine symphonic arrangements with Israeli singing, jazz pop and rock music.

In 2021, the decision was made to promote a plan to establish a second opera house in Israel, of which the orchestra will be an integral part .

The immediate operative meaning of the decision is to change the orchestra's repertoire, which dealt mainly with classical symphonic works and also change the composition of the orchestra's players according to the new repertoire – operatic programs, operettas, musicals, various vocal works and popular songs.  Following the decisions and structural changes in the orchestra, already in the coming season 2021-2022, the Ashdod Symphony Orchestra will be renamed: The Israeli Chamber Opera Orchestra.

Along with performances and concerts in Israel over the years, the orchestra has performed in many countries around the world, where it received positive and warm reactions from the audience and the media including: France, Hungary, Italy, Romania, Spain, Germany, England, Serbia, Bulgaria and more.

The orchestra has performed with international artists including Jane Birkin, Michel Legrand as well as the violinists Sergio Schwartz, Maxim Vengerov, the pianos Andrei Gavrilov, Alexander Korsantiya, Sergi Babien and others.

The artistic director of the orchestra for the past decade is maestro Vag Papian,

a famous pianist, musical director and principal conductor of orchestras in Israel and around the world.

The Israel Chamber Opera Orchestra is supported by the Municipality of Ashdod and the State of Israel – Director of Culture and Sports.